3D print layer shift is a common quality issue in 3D printing, where the layers are misaligned, resulting in the print horizontal shift in one direction. Unfortunately, unlike ghosting or stringing issues, layer shift cannot be fixed through post-processing. Layer shift is attributed to the movements of the Y and X axes, just as the Z-wobble issue is caused by problems in the Z-axis movements. This article will let you know the causes and solutions for 3D printing layer shift.
What Causes 3D Printing Layer Shift
3D print layer shift happens due to strong vibrations generated by a 3D printer, which results in poor print accuracy. As a 3D printer is composed of many moving components, and usually, issues with these parts, such as wear and looseness, can cause vibrations.
Therefore, to solve layer shifting in 3D printing, check the machine components to ensure smooth and stable motion. Additionally, machine calibration and correct print settings are essential. Here are the four reasons for the layer shift issue:
- The print head is colliding with the print.
- The belts and pulleys are loose.
- The print head is moving too fast.
- There are obstructions on the tracks of the X-axis and Y-axis.
How to Prevent 3D Printer Layer Shift
1. Calibrate Your Printer
If the nozzle of the 3D printer is too close to the build surface, it can lead to layer shifting as the nozzle may collide with the printed object during printing. Calibrating your printer is typically a necessary step to be done before the initial setup and after replacing printer components. You need to do two tasks: bed leveling to ensure the machine's bed is flat and then fine-tuning the Z-offset to ensure the correct distance between the nozzle and the build surface.
For 3D printing beginners, performing the two tasks may require some experience and skills, especially if the printer's bed leveling system is traditional and manual. However, Anycubic Kobra 2 Pro simplifies these tedious tasks by offering features like automatic bed leveling and smart Z-offset adjustment.
2. Tighten the Belts
The wrong tension of the printer belts can lead to print quality issues, such as 3D print layer shift, ghosting and ringing. Some printers require tools to tighten the screws and adjust the belts, whereas Anycubic Kobra Series FDM printers are equipped with rotating knobs on the Y and X axes for easy belt tightening. It is recommended to fully tighten the slack belts and then loosen them counterclockwise by one turn, as this may be the optimal tightness for the belts.
Belt tension plays a crucial role in a 3D printer and should not be overlooked. I suggest checking out 'How to Adjust 3D Printing Belts' for more detailed information.
3. Check and Align the Pulleys
A 3D printer pulley is typically a metal wheel with a grooved rim around which a belt passes, and you can find it on the motor shafts of the X and Y axes. When the motor is powered on, its shaft will rotate to drive the pulley and belt. Therefore, loose or worn pulleys can result in 3D printing layer shifting.
First, check whether the pulleys are well-secured to the motors. Some printers have separate motors and pulleys, such as Anycubic Kobra Neo and Kobra Go. In this case, you need to align the screw holes of the pulley with the flat side of the motor shaft, and then tighten the screws using an Allen key. On the other hand, an integrated motor only needs to be checked and tested. If it is damaged, it should be replaced entirely.
4. Reduce the Print Speed
Lowering the printing speed helps reduce the chance of 3D printing layer shift. If the printing speed is set too high, the motors may operate under constant overload and make click-clack noise, which can easily lead to 3D print stringing and layer shifting. It is recommended to set the speed within the suggested parameters provided by the printer's manufacturer.
5. Keep the 3D Printer Moving Parts Stable During Motion
The main cause of 3D printer layer shift is often due to the unsmooth movements of X and Y-axis. The methods above are mainly about inspecting the moving parts of the X and Y axes (like belts, pulleys, and motors). But this step can be easily overlooked. You should check whether the X and Y-axis movements are smooth and free from any other objects that may be obstructing the tracks, causing resistance to the movement of the print head and the heated bed. Even a small piece of plastic debris getting stuck on the motors can lead to layer shifting. Therefore, regular maintenance of your machine, such as cleaning the heated bed, is crucial.